Week 4 Discussion: Differences and Similari”es between Presiden”al and Parliamentary Systems

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This is a graded discussion: 25 points possible due Sep 28 at 1:59am

Week 4 Discussion: Differences and Similari”es between Presiden”al and Parliamentary Systems

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Required Resources Read/review the following resources for this activity:

Initial Post Instructions Discuss the differences and similarities between the presidential and parliamentary systems, including the executive and legislative branches. Which system do you feel serves its citizen better? Why? Use evidence (cite sources) to support your response from assigned readings or online lessons, and at least one outside scholarly source.

Follow-Up Post Instructions Respond to at least two peers or one peer and the instructor. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification. Minimum of 1 scholarly source which can include your textbook or assigned readings or may be from your additional scholarly research.

Writing Requirements

Grading This activity will be graded using the Discussion Grading Rubric. Please review the following link:

Course Outcomes (CO): 3

Due Date for Initial Post: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Wednesday Due Date for Follow-Up Posts: By 11:59 p.m. MT on Sunday

Textbook: Chapter 7, 8 Lesson Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)

Minimum of 3 posts (1 initial & 2 follow-up) Minimum of 2 sources cited (assigned readings/online lessons and an outside scholarly source) APA format for in-text citations and list of references

Link (webpage): Discussion Guidelines

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Aug 19, 2020

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PARLIAMENT V. PRESIDENT (US VS UK) Class,

It might be said that neither the United Kingdom nor the United States have lately been modeling the most effective approach to relations between the executive and legislative branches of government … “the heart and soul of the lawmaking and law executing part of government.” Whitman Cobb, 150) Brexit certainly revealed some differences of opinion which forced the Supreme Court to step into the matter (link (https://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2019/1113/Brexit-gives-a-nudge-to-separation-of-powers-in- Britain) , link (http://www.lse.ac.uk/ideas/Assets/Documents/Dahrendorf/Power-of-Parliament.pdf) , link (https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/sep/05/eu-withdrawal-bill-executive-coup- brexit) ). Trump’s presidency has brought a bright light onto the changing balance of power between Congress and the President. (link (https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/sep/05/eu-withdrawal-bill-executive-coup-brexit) , link (https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/is-expanding-presidential-power-inherently-bad-for- democracy) , link (https://www.ushistory.org/gov/7a.asp) ) What are the major similarities and differences in the way that the executive deals with the legislature in the United Kingdom and the United States? Have either system undergone major changes over time? Which approach seems most likely to overcome its current challenges?

Sam

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Monday

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Edited by Samuel Angus (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720) on Sep 22 at 10:48am

PARLIAMENT V. PRESIDENT (US VS UK) Angela, Stacey, and Class,

Differences between the two systems include:

Similarities between the two systems in the way leaders are chosen and the power they have include:

British citizens vote for representatives to Parliament, who then choose the Prime minister … so does that mean that British citizens have less input on who becomes President?

The Prime Minister shares executive power with Parliament, is only head of government, and can be more easily removed from office. Does that mean the Prime Minister is less powerful than the President?

Sam

that the President is selected by the people, acting through the electoral college, while the Prime Minister is chosen by and from within Parliament (not the cabinet), which is chosen by the people. So, while neither is selected directly by the people, the President is selected more directly: that it is easier to remove the head of government in a parliamentary system; that there is less gridlock and legislation tends to get passed more easily; that the US has a more developed system of checks and balances; that the Prime Minister is chosen out of and remains a part of Parliament, and thus has legislative experience; that the Prime Minister is the head of the majority party in Parliament; that executive power is shared between the Prime Minister and Parliament in Britain, who are fused in a way that the legislature and executive are not in the USA where the separation between the branches is clearer; that the upper house in the US (the Senate) has more power than the upper house in the UK (the House of Lords); that the ‘upper’ legislative body in the UK has aristocratic origins and members are appointed rather than elected; and/or what else?

that both have at least one legislative branch that is directly elected; that the majority of legislators are in the lower house; that both have bicameral legislatures; and/or what else?

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Yesterday

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PARLIAMENT V. PRESIDENT (US VS UK) Brandi, Jessica, and Class,

Differences between the two systems include:

Similarities between the two systems in the way leaders are chosen and the power they have include:

that the President is selected by the people, acting through the electoral college (and NOT directly elected), while the Prime Minister is chosen by and from within Parliament (not the cabinet), which is chosen by the people. So, while neither is selected directly by the people, the President is arguably selected more directly: that it is easier to remove the head of government in a parliamentary system; that there is less gridlock and legislation tends to get passed more easily; that the US has a more developed system of checks and balances; that the Prime Minister is chosen out of and remains a part of Parliament, and thus has legislative experience; that the Prime Minister is the head of the majority party in Parliament; that executive power is shared between the Prime Minister and Parliament in Britain, who are fused in a way that the legislature and executive are not in the USA where the separation between the branches is clearer; that the upper house in the US (the Senate) has more power than the upper house in the UK (the House of Lords); that the ‘upper’ legislative body in the UK has aristocratic origins and members are appointed rather than elected; that the President is limited to two terms while the Prime Minister does not face term limits; that the President serves four year terms while the Prime Minister can go up to five years between elections; and/or what else?

that both have at least one legislative branch that is directly elected;

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Edited by Samuel Angus (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720) on Sep 22 at 11:02am

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British citizens vote for representatives to Parliament, who then choose the Prime minister … so does that mean that British citizens have less input on who becomes President?

The Prime Minister shares executive power with Parliament, is only head of government, and can be more easily removed from office. Does that mean the Prime Minister is less powerful than the President?

And which system is preferable? Is it the American style presidential system? Is it really more stable? Does the slow pace and more contentious debate lead to better solutions? Is it better for other reasons? Is the British Parliamentary system better because it is more representative and …?

Sam

that both have at least one legislative branch that is directly elected; that the majority of legislators are in the lower house; that both have bicameral legislatures; that both are representative democracies (Aristotle’s polities); and/or what else?

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) 8:59am

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PARLIAMENT V. PRESIDENT (US VS UK) Veronica, Geoffrey, Emily, Traci E., Dorcas, and Class,

Differences between the two systems include:

that the President is selected by the people, acting through the electoral college (and NOT directly elected), while the Prime Minister is chosen by and from within Parliament (not the cabinet), which is chosen by the people. So, while neither is selected directly by the people, the President is arguably selected more directly: that it is easier to remove the head of government in a parliamentary system; that there is less gridlock and legislation tends to get passed more easily in a parliamentary system since one party is guaranteed control of the executive and legislative branches of government;

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Similarities between the two systems in the way leaders are chosen and the power they have include:

British citizens vote for representatives to Parliament, who then choose the Prime minister … so does that mean that British citizens have less input on who becomes President?

The Prime Minister shares executive power with Parliament, is only head of government, and can be more easily removed from office. Does that mean the Prime Minister is less powerful than the President?

So, based on the above, which system is preferable? Is it the American style presidential system because it is more stable, has a slower pace and more contentious debate and thus less hasty decision making and better solutions, and …? Is the British Parliamentary system actually better because it is more representative, because the Prime Minister is more easily held accountable than the President; and …?

that the US has a more developed system of checks and balances; that the Prime Minister is chosen out of and remains a part of Parliament, and thus has legislative experience; that the Prime Minister is the head of the majority party in Parliament; that executive power is shared between the Prime Minister and Parliament in Britain, who are fused in a way that the legislature and executive are not in the USA where the separation between the branches is clearer; that the upper house in the US (the Senate) has more power than the upper house in the UK (the House of Lords); that the ‘upper’ legislative body in the UK has aristocratic origins and members are appointed rather than elected; that the President is limited to two terms while the Prime Minister does not face term limits; that the President serves four year terms while the Prime Minister can go up to five years between elections; that the President has veto power; and/or what else?

that both have at least one legislative branch that is directly elected; that the majority of legislators are in the lower house; that both have bicameral legislatures; that both are representative democracies (Aristotle’s polities); that both have three branches of government; and/or what else?

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the President; and …?

Sam

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Angela Walker (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/169532) Sunday

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The presidential system of government has more differences from the parliamentary system of government than similarities. First, let’s examine the differences. In the president government, the President is elected by the people, but the Prime Minister in the parliamentary system is elected by members of its own body (Cobb, 2020). The legislative and executive members are all elected by citizens, but the citizens elect only the legislative members in the parliament system (Cobb, 2020). The President is not allowed to serve as a member of the legislative branch, but the Prime Minister can (Cobb, 2020). Lastly, there is a long process to remove the President from his power; however, the Prime Minister can be dismissed or removed by a vote of confidence (Cobb, 2020).

There are some notable similarities between the two types of government. Both types of government have the majority of its members in the lower house. The lower houses are the House of Representatives in the presidential system and the House of Commons in the parliament system (Cobb, 2020). Since most of its members are in the lower classes, they also hold the majority vote in both types of government (Cobb. 2020).

Both the presidential and parliament system of government has good and bad points to them. The presidential system of government allows the voice of the citizens to be heard because the citizens elect all members. Though citizen’s voices may be heard more, the fact that there are so many different voices slows the government down and, in some instances, can cause gridlock. Some may say that it may even endanger the government’s stability (Shugart, 1995). However, in the parliament system, only the legislative members are elected by the citizens. This means more members are of the same mindset; thus, there are fewer disagreements. Laws are passed faster in the parliamentary system of government because of this cohesiveness. The presidential system also allows for checks and balances while the parliament system does not. In the presidential system, the elective and legislative branches run separately, and a person is not allowed to be a member of both committees. This is written in our Constitution (Cobb, 2020). However, in the parliament system, the Prime Minister may serve on a legislative branch (Cobb, 2020). Finally, the President is not so easily dismissed from his position as the prime minister. In short, both the presidential system of government and the parliamentary system of government are perfect; both have good and bad points to them.

Reference

Cobb, W. (2020). Political Science Today. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Shugart, M. (1995). The Electoral Cycle and Institutional Sources of Divided Presidential Government. American Political Science Review, 89(2), 327-343. https://doi.org/10.2307/2082428 (https://doi.org/10.2307/2082428)

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Veronica Smith McCormick (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/140818) Yesterday

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Hello Angela. After reading your discussion post, I would like to highlight one point you made about the differences between the presidential and parliamentary systems. This is one that I never knew and you brought it out in good fashion. The fact that laws are passed faster in the parliamentary system of government than in the presidential system. That has to do with the fact that there is either a unicameral house or in a bicameral house, the Prime Minister always has a majority party in the legislature of the parliamentary system.

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Stacey Ryle (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/117098) Sunday

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Professor and Class,

There are many types of governments that exist in the world today. The type of government will determine how the executive , legislative and judicial brances operate. The presidential and parlimentary systems are two types of government that are both rooted in Democracy. This means that citizens of both types of systems have the power to influence decisions made in the government with their votes. Both systems are bicameral, meaning they are composed of an upper and lower house. In the United States which is a presidential system, the upper house is the Senate and the lower house is the House of Representatives. The lower house has the power to initiate bills and impeach presidents. The Senate has the power to conduct impeachment trials and acts as a jurty. These two houses make up the legislative branch. The executive branch in the presidential system is made of soley of the President (in the U.S). In the parlimentary system, there is also an upper house (House of Lords) and a lower house (House of Commons). The upper house has less power than the lower house. The lower house is able to elect in the Prime Minister as well as votet he/she out. The Legistative branch in the presidential system are all elected by the U.S. Citizens where only the upper house are elected officials in the Parlimentary system. The lower house are individuals chosen by the parliment and the Prime Minister.

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system. The lower house are individuals chosen by the parliment and the Prime Minister.

In the presidential system of the United States, the President can only serve or a maximum of two terms and they are completely independent of the legislative branch. They often have conflicting view points making passing laws or working together for the good of it’s citizens more difficult. It is a very difficult process to remove a president from office in the Presidential system. That president has to be impeached by the House of Representatives and then the Senate has to approve this impeachment with 2/3 of the vote. It is a long and difficult process.

The parlimentary system’s executive and legislative branch are pretty much one. The Prime Minister is elected by the parliament. He/She, is in a sense, the head of the parliament. The parliament and the Prime Minister generally have similar ideas and beliefs and often work well together. The Prime Minister will write laws along with the parliament. This makes passing laws and working on issues much easier. “The gridlock in the United States where the president is of a different party tatn the majority of Congress is far less likely in a parlimentary system” (Pillalamari, 2016). It is also much easier to remove a Prime Minister from office. If it is decided by the parliament or people that the Prime Minister is not fulfilling his/her duties, they can be removed with a “no confidence vote.” This is a simple vote and then this person is removed from office.

Up until this class, I always felt that our country had the best government and system in place. After learning more about the parlimentary system, I believe that this system would better serve our citizens. Not only is it much easier to get leader (Prime Minister) out of office if wrong doing is occuring but it is easier to elect a new leader, In the presidential system in America, an election happens only every four years so the President that is in office is there regardless of changing times or opinions of its citizens unless impeached. In a parlimentary system, an election can be held at any time for a new leader. If the citizens or parliment feel there is a need for another election, this can be done. This enables a leader that is not looking out for whats best for their country to be removed and a new leader elected. We, unfortunately, do not have that luxury here in the United States. I also feel that the parlimentary system can be less corrupt. In the parlimentary system, funding is available to people for elections and there is a cap on campaign contributions. Here in the United States, there endless amounts of money that can be contributed to a campaign election and this can often come with bribery. While both systems have its positives and negatives, I feel that a parlimentary system may better serve the United States citizens.

Thank you

Stacey Ryle

References

Chamberlain University (2020). Week 4 Lesson.

Franis,D. (2019). Parliament over president. Retrieved from: https://www (https://www) .the- american-interest.com/2019/10/18/parliament-over-president.

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american-interest.com/2019/10/18/parliament-over-president.

Pillalamari, A. (2016). America needs a parliment. Retrieved from: https://nationalinterest.org (https://nationalinterest.org)

WhitmanCobb, W.N. (2020). Political science today. (1st ed.) Washington, D.C. : Sage CQ Press.

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Veronica Smith McCormick (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/140818) Yesterday

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Hello Stacey. I would like to commend you on such an educational post for this discussion post. I like the fact that you highlighted the fact that each is a form of a democracy. The citizens are actually the ones who the government come from. A government of the people by the people is what rules our democracy today. It lets the people have a voice in their own government.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Monday

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CHOOSING THE EXECUTIVE Class,

What are the major differences between the way in which the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and the President of the United States are chosen? What are the main similarities? Which approach is better? Does the method of selection have any impact on the sort of person who is selected?

Sam

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Brandi Crane (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/171555) Monday

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Professor and Class,

A parliamentary system and presidential system are two types of democratic governments. In the parliamentary system the executive and legislative branches are joined. The citizens do not vote for individuals but instead vote for a political party to represent them. It is bicameral consisting of lower and upper house. Most all European countries including the UK have a separate head of state that is always a member of the royal family. The head of government in the UK is the prime minister and he can call for new elections at any time. (Whitman Cobb, 2020). In a presidential system the executive and legislative branches are separated to provide a means for checks and balances for each other. Citizens are also able to directly vote for president. (Whitman Cobb, 2020).

Both systems have advantages and disadvantages, however I still feel the best system for us is the presidential. I think it provides the checks and balance system a government requires. The leadership of president is more authentic because he or she is directly elected and not a political party. And although this system may be slower at times with passing of legislation, I think it’s more stable overall as parliament can fall at any time with a vote of no confidence. I found in research that many people disagree with this view and find that parliamentary systems feature larger scores of democracy as well as better economic scores. (Ozkan & McManus, 2019). With the United States being the world’s largest economy, studies suggest the reason the U.S. still experiences good economic outcomes with a presidential system is because of checks and balances the constitution puts in place. (Ozkan & McManus, 2019). However, I do feel that citizens have a voice in either system.

References

Whitman Cobb, W. (2020). Political Science Today. Sage Publishing.

Ozkan, G. & McManus, R. (2019). Parliamentary systems do better economically than presidential ones. The Conversation. https//www.google.com/amp/thecoversation.org.

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Yesterday

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Brandi and Class,

The ongoing conversation comparing parliamentary and presidential systems is up above. If you want to post on general comparisons between the two systems, please post up above in that conversation.

Thanks!

Sam

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/152086)

Jessica Medwick (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/152086) Yesterday

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Professor Angus and Class,

“A parliamentary government is a system in which the powers of the executive and legislative branches are intertwined as opposed to being held separate as a check against each other’s power, as the Founding Fathers of the United States demanded in the U.S. Constitution” (Murse, 2019). In a parliamentary government, the executive branch draws its power directly from the legislative branch since the top government official and members of his cabinet are not chosen by voters like the presidential system. In the parliament system, they are chosen by members of the legislature. Parliamentary governments are common in Europe, the Caribbean, and more common worldwide than the presidential forms of government. The head of the parliament government is normally called the Prime Minister, this is known in the United Kingdom and Canada. The British House of Commons are the ones that chose members of the executive branch and the prime minister, the prime minister and the cabinet serve if the legislature has confidence in them. In Canada, the lead person of the political party with the most seats in parliament becomes the prime minister. Walter Bagehot, who is a journalist and essayist argued in his 1867 work, The English Constitution, that parliamentary types of government were more efficient since it holds the people

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of the political systems to the same standards of work and one person is not above the rest. In a parliament government, the party in power of them controls the prime minister’s office and all members of the cabinet, they also hold enough seats in the legislative branch to pass legislation, even on controversial issues. For a presidential government, a party can control both houses of Congress and the White House. (Murse, 2019).

A presidential system is a form of government in which the president is the chief executive and is elected directly by the people. All three of the branches; the executive, legislative, and judiciary in this system are constitutionally independent of each other. The president is responsible for enforcing laws, the legislative is responsible for making them, and the courts are responsible for judging. Each system has specific powers to check and to balance the others. The government consists of three branches and the president, congress, and the supreme court work together for a government to be constituted then report directly to the people. Presidents are elected every four years per electoral college vote and the presidency term can last for eight years if reelected after the fourth term. If the president does something illegal, they can be impeached. In our lesson, we learned, “in parliament government they can remove the executive through a vote of no confidence” (Chamberlain, 2020). In the parliament system, total executive responsibility is assigned collectively to a council of ministers. In the presidential system, this is assigned to him or her. The president’s cabinet consists of people able to do the job by the president and have to be approved by the Senate with this being said, the president can veto but cannot make laws and the legislature can override if need be. The presidential system is designed for federation. Each state has its own government that is granted separate and specific powers. The residue powers are left with the states. (Dhamija, 2016).

Even though the parliament and presidential systems do not have many similarities, something that is similar between the two is the lower house being where power resides in real legislative systems. In the parliament system, this is known as the House of Commons which maintains significant control over the executive and dismiss him or her with a no-confidence vote if the time arises. When parliamentary elections are held, members will select executive and department heads within its own ranks to prevent gridlock. In the presidential system, the president is restrained from the Constitution from doing anything that may exceed specific powers, the president’s powers are checked by the legislature and judiciary. (Chamberlain, 2020).

I feel like the presidential system serves the citizens better. Each system does what they can to best provide their nation but with the presidential system it gives citizens a voice, they are the ones who get to vote for the president where parliament is done by the legislature. The presidential system was created in 1787 since the union was falling apart at the time and was lacking a fair system for interstate cooperation when being under the British Constitution. (Dhamija, 2016).

Jessica Medwick

References:

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References:

Dhamija. 2016. What is the Presidential System? The Presidential System. Retrieved: https://presidentialsystem.org/2016/04/30/what-is-the-presidential-system/ (https://presidentialsystem.org/2016/04/30/what-is-the-presidential-system/)

Chamberlain. 2020. Week 4 Lesson: Democracy and Representation. Differences and Similarities between Presidential and Parliamentary Systems. Retrieved: https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/pages/week-3-lesson-democracy-and- the-formation-of-government?module_item_id=9295649 (https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/pages/week-3-lesson-democracy-and-the-formation- of-government?module_item_id=9295649)

Murse. 2019. Major Parliamentary Governments and How They Work. ThoughCo. Retrieved: https://www.thoughtco.com/how-parliamentary-government-works-4160918 (https://www.thoughtco.com/how-parliamentary-government-works-4160918)

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Yesterday

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Jessica and Class,

The ongoing conversation comparing parliamentary and presidential systems is up above. If you want to post on general comparisons between the two systems, please post up above in that conversation.

Thanks!

Sam

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Yesterday

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9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 17 of 38

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GERMANY Class,

What sort of executive does Germany have? How is this person chosen? How do they interact with the legislature? What all/what else stands out about the German system and why?

Sam

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Stacey Ryle (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/117098) 10:42am

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9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 18 of 38

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Professor and Class,

Germany is a democratic, parlimentary system. The formal chief of state is the President who is elected by the Bundestag (federal government) and the sixteen parliment states. They serve a five year term and can be relected only once. This person must be a German national and be at least 40 years old.

The legislative branch is bicameral like the United States and is made of up the Bundestag (federal government or parliment) and the Bundesrat (Germany’s regional states). The Bundestag has the most power. They elect the Chancellor was approved by the President, approves the federal government and deploys the German army outside of Germany. The Bundestag are elected by the German citizens. The Bundesrat’s has the first say in executing bills and must give its approval on bill before they can become law.

The Chancellor is nonimated by the President as well as the Chancellor’s cabinet member. “Six out of fifteen members of the German cabinet are women – and Angela Markel of course remains Chancellor” (Bierbach, 2018).

As in the United States, the President must be impeached to be removed from office. The Bundestag or Bunesrat must initiate the impeachment for violating German law. Once impeachment is set the Federal Constitutional Government decides if they are guilty. If guilty, that person is then removed from office.

Stacey Ryle

References

Bierbach, M. (2018). Five important demographic facts on the new German government. Retrieved from: https://www.amp.dw.com (https://www.amp.dw.com)

Turner, H. (2020). Government and society. Retrieved from https://www (https://www) .britannica.com/place/germany/the-greers.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) Yesterday

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FRANCE Class,

Does France have a presidential system like the United States or a parliamentary system like the UK? Why does France have the system that it has?

Sam

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Anne St Jean (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/157701) Yesterday

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9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 20 of 38

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Good afternoon class. I found out that France has a ” semi presidential system of Government… where both a president and prime mister shares executive powers (Sawe, first paragraph)”. The president decides who will be prime minister and the role of the prime minister is ” to direct the actions of the Government and to coordinate ministerial and Governmental actions (Sawe, third paragraph)”. I feel like that is similar to the United States having a president and vice president because the president is also the one who decides who will be their vice president. I feel that the system is this way because both the prime minister and president has different roles and they are working together to help the country. The president could not do everything by himself so the prime minister oversees certain areas of Government. I feel that the system works for them as they make decisions together and do not go against each other. The president does of course have more power than the prime minister and can let the prime minister go if he isn’t following proper protocols but for the main part I think its a good system if they continue to work together and not go against each other. The prime minister must go through the president before he makes a decision so the prime minster does have some power but not that much where he can simply make a decision on his own.

Reference

Benjamin Elisha Sawe. (2019, April 1). What Type of Government Does France Have? World Atlas. https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-type-of-government-does-france- have.html (https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/what-type-of-government-does-france-have.html)

Wendy N. Whitman Cobb. (2020). Political Science Today. CQ Press Sage Publications. Pages 142-152.

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Geoffrey Rovira (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/79392) Yesterday

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Two examples of presidential and parliamentary governments systems are the United States and the United Kingdom, respectively. For the purpose of this discussion, these two countries governmental system will be discussed. In the presidential system of the United States, there are two branches, which are the legislative and the executive. In a presidential system, the executive branch is elected by the people for a predictable term, and is the leader that represents the country (Whitman Cobb, 2020). The legislative branch is Congress. These two branches work together to provide check and balance, so one branch does not impose more power over the other (Whitman Cobb, 2020). It is common for these branches to disagree, necessitating renegotiation of legislation (Kaminsky, 1997). According to Whitman Cobb (2020), the balance of power between the two branches are in a constant state of flux depending on the needs of the country. One branch can ultimately stall or block new legislation from being enacted, especially large-scale policy (Whitman Cobb, 2020).

The parliamentary system on the other hand, has both branches of government fused with executive powers carried out by the majority party (Whitman Cobb, 2020). Kaminsky (1997) writes that because of this, “the executive and legislature ultimately must agree on policy.” It is further described that any dissention between either branch in a parliamentary system is abnormal (Kaminsky, 1997). This is in contrast to presidential systems, where delays between the two branches can prevent policy and new bills from being passed. Due to this lack of opposition, the minority views may not be expressed, and the majority is able to pass legislation that could potentially not be beneficial for the public (Whitman Cobb, 2020).

I believe that the presidential system serves its citizens better because of the checks and balances between the executive and legislative branches. This prevents hasty decision making by the majority as seen in the parliament system. In the presential system, the minority still has a voice, and can ultimately block unfair laws from being enacted. This seems fairer for the citizens in which those in government represent.

References:

Kaminsky, E. B. Z. (1997). On the comparison of presidential and parliamentary governments. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 27(2), 221-228. Retrieved from https://search- proquest- com.chamberlainuniversity.idm.oclc.org/docview/215684695/fulltextPDF/5D67C08AF72B4A9BPQ/ 1?accountid=147674

Whitman Cobb, W. N. (2020). Political science today (1st ed.). Washington, DC: Sage, CQ Press.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) !

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9:04am

” Reply &

Geoffrey and Class,

The conversation in which we compare and contrast parliamentary and presidential systems (in their guises in the US and UK) is up above. I have responded to this post up there. Please go there to post if you want to weigh in on the general comparison between the two systems.

Thanks!

Sam

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/140818)

Veronica Smith McCormick (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/140818) Yesterday

!

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Hello instructor Angus and class. For this discussion forum, it is important to recognize that we are a part of a presidential system of government. Another important point is that this country got its start from Great Britain and its parliamentary system of government. That is where the similarities come into play. Here are some similarities between both systems of government. According to (borgenproject.org, 2020), both systems are democracies. This means that citizens have the power to make governmental decisions through their vote. Both systems have an executive branch, a legislative branch, and a judicial branch. The citizens elect the members of the legislature of both systems. Here are some of the differences. In a presidential system, the president is the head of state and the head of the government elected by citizens to be head of government and state for a maximum of two terms (https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/e150/ea84376a5646c8a204486073515e3bf38e28.pdf%20-%20pg%20308) in office. In a parliamentary system, the head of government and parliament is the Prime Minister. Rather than participating in a general election, Parliament elects the Prime Minister. In the parliamentary system, the Prime Minister typically has no limit to the time they can stay in office. The president can be impeached by a 2/3 majority of both houses of the legislature in the presidential system. Meanwhile, the Prime Minister can be removed by a no-confidence vote of the legislature in the parliamentary system. According to (www.lawteacher.net, 2020), the three branches of government are separate from each of while in a parliamentary system, the prime minister must be beholding to represent the political party of parliament that elected him. In a presidential system, the legislature is composed of a bicameral or two house chamber while in a parliamentary system, the legislature may consist of either a unicameral (one house chamber) of a bicameral chamber.

The Parliamentary System Versus the Presidential System (2020) retrieved 9/22/2020 from

https://borgenproject.org/parliamentary-system-versus-presidential-system/ (https://borgenproject.org/parliamentary-system-versus-presidential-system/)

The Presidential and Parliamentary Governance Forms (2020) retrieved 9/22/2020 from

https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/administrative-law/the-presidential-and- parliamentary-governance-forms-administrative-law-essay.php

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) 9:04am

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Veronica and Class,

The conversation in which we compare and contrast parliamentary and presidential systems (in their guises in the US and UK) is up above. I have responded to this post up there. Please go there to post if you want to weigh in on the general comparison between the two systems.

Thanks!

Sam

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/148024)

Emily Fox (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/148024) Yesterday

!

9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 25 of 38

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Professor and class,

There are some significant similarities and differences between the Presidential and Parliamentary Systems. Both systems are democracies, meaning that citizens vote to decide governmental issues. One of the differences exists in the Executive Branch. In the Presidential System this consists of just the President who is an elected individual. He has responsibilities like, signing legislation into law and vetoing bills enacted by Congress. Whereas, the parliamentary system has a clear distinction between the head of government and the head of state. The head of government consists of the Prime Minister who is elected by the members of Parliament. Citizens elect the members of Parliament. The Parliament makes up the legislative branch of government. The Prime Minister can stay in office as long as he is satisfying the Parliament who can remove him from power.

One of the main differences between the two regarding the Legislative Branch is the fact that in Presidential systems the legislative branch writes law for the President to approve and has two houses. In Parliamentary systems laws are written by the Prime Minister along with legislature and pass them. The Judicial Branch has a very similar structure between the two.

I feel like there are advantages to both systems. However, in a Presidential system the individual citizens get more of a voice through voting. However, I think the electoral college takes a bit of that voice away, but I’ll get into that in this weeks project.

Maja Stamenkovska. (2019, June 7). The Parliamentary System Versus the Presidential System | The Borgen Project. The Borgen Project. https://borgenproject.org/parliamentary-system-versus- presidential-system/

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) 9:04am

!

9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 26 of 38

” Reply &

Emily and Class,

The conversation in which we compare and contrast parliamentary and presidential systems (in their guises in the US and UK) is up above. I have responded to this post up there. Please go there to post if you want to weigh in on the general comparison between the two systems.

Thanks!

Sam

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/105047)

Dorcas Todom (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/105047) Yesterday

!

9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 27 of 38

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Hello professor and class,

The system of government of a nation determines how the legislative, executive, and judicial branches are organized (Whitman Cobb, 2020). Both the parliamentary and presidential systems are democracies. This means the ultimate power rests with the citizens who elect their representatives. Through electing representatives, citizens are able to make governmental decisions (Whitman Cobb, 2020). It is, therefore, important for citizens to understand both systems of government in terms of similarities and differences.

Both the presidential and parliamentary systems have elected bodies that hold law making capabilities. This elected body is the legislature (Appleby & Webster, 2016). Both systems are democratic in that the people are given the mandate of electing their representatives. In the parliamentary system, the citizens elect the members of the legislature who in turn elect the prime minister who is the chief executive of the government. In the presidential system, the president is elected directly by the citizens. Both systems of government have 3 branches of government consisting of the judiciary, legislature, and the executive. The judiciary holds the final say on the legality of all laws in both systems of government (Appleby & Webster, 2016).

In the parliamentary system of government, the legislature holds both law making and executive powers. The two functions are clearly separated in a presidential system. The majority party forms government in the parliamentary system while the president forms government in the presidential system regardless of the number of seats they hold in the House or Senate (Appleby & Webster, 2016). Since the prime minister is elected by parliament, the legislature can pass a vote of no confidence to remove the prime minister from power. In the presidential system, on the other hand, the president can be removed through an impeachment process.

In my opinion, I think the parliamentary system serves its citizens better. This is because the Prime Minister is answerable to parliament. In the presidential system, despite the president being held accountable by the legislature, it is very unlikely that an impeachment process can be successful. The president can be impeached on the grounds of serious crimes such as treason, conviction, and bribery (Appleby & Webster, 2016). These are very high crimes making it unlikely to initiate an impeachment process thus demonstrating this system’s inability to hold the president accountable hence creating an ineffective government.

References

Appleby, G., & Webster, A. (2016). Executive power under the constitution: a presidential and parliamentary system compared. U. Colo. L. Rev., 87, 1129.

Whitman Cobb, W. N. (2020). Political science today. Sage, CQ Press.

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(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) 9:03am

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!

Dorcas and Class,

The conversation in which we compare and contrast parliamentary and presidential systems (in their guises in the US and UK) is up above. I have responded to this post up there. Please go there to post if you want to weigh in on the general comparison between the two systems.

Thanks!

Sam

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/153410)

Traci East (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/153410) Yesterday

!

9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 29 of 38

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Professor and Class,

There are differences and similarities between the presidential and parliamentary systems. The presidential system has a President that is head of government and is divided between the executive, legislative and judicial branches. The President is elected into office by the voters for a four-year term and is head of the executive branch. In a parliamentary system the Prime Minister is the party leader voted by and election called proportional representation that votes for a political party to represent the people (Whitman Cobb, p. 99, 2020). The parliamentary system is made up of executive and legislative branches that have functions that are carried out by the majority party as long as “confidence” is current. The Prime Minister can call for new elections at any time where the President cannot. Parliamentary systems have head of state for instance this would be the country’s royal family but has no responsibility and are prohibited being involved in politics (Whitman Cobb, p. 98). In parliamentary there is an upper house called the House of Lords represents the upper class and a lower House called the House of Commons represents the mass population. Thus, the parliamentary systems prime minister does not have much power to overrule legislative opponents. Where the president has legislative power to use against the other party. In parliamentary system the Prime Minister controls the legislative agenda that affects the budget or revenue. In the presidential system legislature makes its own agenda and passes its own bill but there is a checks and balances that each branch check each other and they work on passing bills into law the president can sign or veto the bill (Whitman Cobb p.104-105)

I feel the U.S. has the better system. We vote on the candidate who runs for president based on an electoral vote. Our president is elected for a four-year term which I feel it gives the U.S. some stability whereas in the parliamentary system the prime minister can be removed at any time. Also, there is reason that presidential elections can make democratic practices stronger by the campaigns and debates of the candidates and that it exposes the discussions to the public increasing the political issues in these direct elections than parliamentary elections (Travits, 2008).

Tavits, M. (2008). Direct Presidential Elections and Turnout in Parliamentary Contests. Political Research Quarterly, 62(1), 42–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/1065912908317026

Whitman Cobb, W. N. (2020) (p.78-80). Political science today. Washington, DC: Sage, CQ Press.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) 9:03am

!

9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 30 of 38

” Reply &

Traci and Class,

The conversation in which we compare and contrast parliamentary and presidential systems (in their guises in the US and UK) is up above. I have responded to this post up there. Please go there to post if you want to weigh in on the general comparison between the two systems.

Thanks!

Sam

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) 7:40am

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!

WEAK AND FAILED STATES Class,

What is a weak state? What is a failed state? Can you share at least one example of a weak or failed state and tell us why it is the way it is?

Sam

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/169532)

Angela Walker (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/169532) 1:38pm

!

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Professor and class,

A weak or failed state is a state that runs so poorly that the government is ineffective and lacks control over its territories (Cobb, 2020). These states are unable to control their people or resources, and it is unable to protect bourders (“Failed States 2020”, 2020) .These states are considered failed because of a corrupt government and civil unrest. These failed states are unable to provide goverment services to its citizens. Some can not provide clean water, sewage or protection of its citizens. These are typically very poor states. Some of the worst failed states include Somalia, Congo, Sudan and Chad (Ingersoll & Jones, 2013) .

References

Cobb, W. (2020). Political Science Today. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Failed States 2020. Worldpopulationreview.com. (2020). Retrieved 23 September 2020, from https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/failed-states (https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/failed-states) .

Ingersoll, G., & Jones, B. (2013). The 25 Most Failed States On Earth. Business Insider. Retrieved 23 September 2020, from https://www.businessinsider.com/the-25-most-failed- states-on-earth-2013-6#5-chad-at-just-4907-years-chad-has-the-lowest-life-expectancy- in-the-world-public-infrastructure-is-almost-nonexistent-and-human-rights-abuses-are- rampant-the-landlocked-country-is-flanked-by-instability-with-sudan-to-the-east-and- the-central-african-republic-to-the-south-21 (https://www.businessinsider.com/the-25-most- failed-states-on-earth-2013-6#5-chad-at-just-4907-years-chad-has-the-lowest-life-expectancy-in-the- world-public-infrastructure-is-almost-nonexistent-and-human-rights-abuses-are-rampant-the- landlocked-country-is-flanked-by-instability-with-sudan-to-the-east-and-the-central-african-republic- to-the-south-21) .

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/72720)Samuel Angus (Instructor) 7:41am

!

9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 32 of 38

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NATIONS, STATES, AND MORE Class,

What is a nation? What is a state? Is America a state? Is America a nation? Can folks share examples of states that are and are not nations?

Sam

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/169676)

Michalle Wolfe (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/169676) 12:27pm

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9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 33 of 38

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Although man people often refer to The United States as a Nation this is actually not a valid description. A Nation is a group of people who see themselves as a cohesive and coherent unit based on shared culture or historical criteria (Flint, 2016) so they share the culture but do not have sovereignty. The USA does not have a set of standard mutually endorsed values, especially right now when there is such a deep divide among the common people. As a “nation” we do not all have the same standards or priorities to come together and unite as a single nation which alone makes it not possible. The USA is however a State, as it serves as an independent, sovereign Government exercising control of a defined area (Flint, 2016) in our case the 50 states and outlying territories.

The Kurds, non-Arab, middle eastern minority population that inhabits what’s known as Kurdistan in Southwest Asia, are an example of a nation without a state. While France, Germany, and Japan are examples of nation-states. States are defined as having four requirements; a permanent population, a defined territory, a Government, and a capacity to enter relations with other states (Olsen, 2017).

Flint, C. (2016). Introduction to Geopolitics. London: Routledge.

Olsen, L. (2017, February). State, Country, and Nation. Retrieved September 23, 2020, from https://www.infoplease.com/world/diplomacy/state-country-and-nation

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/169214)

Kylie King (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/169214) 1:36pm

!

Week 4 Discussion: Differences and Similari#es between Presiden#al and Parliamentary Systems

9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 34 of 38

between Presiden#al and Parliamentary Systems Professor and Class,

From my understanding, the difference between the two can be seen in the division of power. The presidential system has raised major questions within the last few years, but more recently in Donald Trump’s presidency. The textbook describes this as a result of “recent research, for example, has focused on the idea of presidential unilateralism, or the ability of presidents to operate independently of the Congress” (Cobb, 150). How do we as a whole feel about that? Is there a way to avoid it? Do we want to avoid it? According to Professor Angus in this week’s lesson, the similarities and differences can be seen in this chart; however, with the quote from the textbook, we can see there is an area of limbo when it comes to presidential power.

US GREAT BRITAIN

SYSTEM Presidential Parliamentary

LEGISLATURE Bicameral Bicameral

DIVISION OF POWER*

*Refer to Lesson 2 Federal Unitary

Taking that information into consideration, we can see that both forms of government have bicameral legislative branches. According to the website, “a bicameral legislative system consists of a lower house and upper house. The lower house is where most law-making occurs. Many governments opt for a two-house legislative branch to avoid the concentration of power in one body and ensure the federal government is held accountable” (Thelwell, 2019). The idea here is that power is divided in a way that works for everyone as a whole. How is this done within each respective government? According to the Borgen Project, it is known that “in presidential systems, the legislative branch will write law for a president to ultimately approve. Though the president may suggest laws, it is ultimately the legislative branch that will write them. In contrast, a Prime Minister will write laws along with the legislature and pass them (Thelwell, 2019). We can see here that both are forms of democracies. The legislative branch isn’t the only branch in a government. The executive branch also is involved. Professor Angus states, “The executive in the presidential model is elected. In the U.S.; this election takes place indirectly in the Electoral College, not the legislature, or by direct citizen vote. The Electoral College is a mechanism used to elect the US President every four years. The electors are chosen according to rules set by each state individually and codified by their own state law” (Angus, 2020). With that being said we put power in one individual that we vote for; however, that is not the case with a parliamentary system. Professor Angus also states, “On the other hand, it would be impossible for someone in the United

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Kingdom to rise to the post of prime minister without legislative experience. In fact, in the British parliamentary model, the executive is selected from within the legislative branch, along with the cabinet that will help him or her guide the government. Prime ministers can still serve as part of the legislative branch and represent a local constituency, something presidents cannot do. Prime ministers can also call for early national elections to be held to try to strengthen their parties’ positions. The U.S. President cannot” (Angus, 2020). What does this boil down to? Which system serves its citizens better? Personally, if we are not looking at the potential power limbo, then I would say a presidential government would. I feel this way because there are other branches put into place to keep the president in check. Overall, I am not sure where this will lead, or what the future has in store, but I hope after elections we have a clearer picture.

Kylie King

References

Angus, S. (2020, September). Week 4 Lesson: Democracy and Representation. Canvas Prepare. Canvas.

Cobb, W. W. (2019). VitalSource Bookshelf Online. https://online.vitalsource.com/.

Thelwell, K. (2019, December 16). The Parliamentary System Versus the Presidential System. The Borgen Project. https://borgenproject.org/parliamentary-system-versus-presidential-system/.

(https://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/137899)

Eritrea Kiflu (h!ps://chamberlain.instructure.com/courses/68288/users/137899) 2:29pm

!

Hello Professor and Class,

9/23/20, 2:38 PM Page 36 of 38

Presidential and parliamentary systems (as in the US and UK, respectively) have several similarities For example, they are similar in the sense that they both have legislatures that pass laws and elections to choose the members of the legislature (Whitman Cobb, 2020). In addition, the executive branch in both systems usually has a cabinet and also administrative departments that carry out the laws (Whitman Cobb, 2020).

However, there are differences as well. In a parliamentary system such as in the UK, the parliament is the only elected body, and the executive is formed by the majority party or coalition in the parliament (Whitman Cobb, 2020). The head of the government and the cabinet are usually members of the parliament (Whitman Cobb, 2020). The executive can lose the confidence of the majority of the parliament and be replaced, and the head of the government can also dissolve the cabinet and call new elections (Whitman Cobb, 2020). In a parliamentary system, the elections are often proportional, which means that voters choose a party and the party receives a percentage of seats based on the proportion of the overall vote (Whitman Cobb, 2020). There may be an upper house, but it usually has much less power (Whitman Cobb, 2020). Finally, there is usually a separate head of state who is a different person than the head of the government (Whitman Cobb, 2020).

In contrast, in a presidential system such as in the US, the legislature and executive are totally separate and are elected separately (Whitman Cobb, 2020). The executive is usually both the head of the government and also the head of state, and the head of the government chooses the cabinet, although the legislature may have some oversight (Whitman Cobb, 2020). Frequently, the legislature is bicameral, and the two houses are mostly equal in power (Whitman Cobb, 2020). The executive cannot introduce legislation directly but may have veto power (Whitman Cobb, 2020). Elections in a presidential system are usually not proportional (Whitman Cobb, 2020).

In my opinion, the parliamentary system serves its citizens better. For example, a parliamentary system can act faster and is more democratic because it must always maintain a majority (Whitman Cobb, 2020). While it has a disadvantage in the sense that it is less stable, the fact that it reflects majority opinion in the country compensates for that problem (Whitman Cobb, 2020). In addition, a study of the economic performance of different political systems from 1950 to 2015 showed that parliamentary systems experienced better economic performance than presidential ones (Ozkan & McManus, 2019). The parliamentary systems also scored higher on measures of democracy and civil rights (Ozkan & McManus, 2019).

References

Ozkan, G., & McManus, R. (2019, February 11). Parliamentary systems do better economically than presidential ones. The Conversation. Retrieved from https://theconversation.com/parliamentary-systems-do-better-economically-than-presidential-ones- 111468.

Whitman Cobb, W.N. (2020). Political science today. Sage CQ Press.

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