Part 1:  Type II Diabetes

In the presentation of your chosen topic, be sure to examine the pathophysiological factors that influence the incidence and manifestations of acute, episodic, and chronic diseases in populations across the lifespan

 1. Pathophysiology

2. Risk factors and causes

3. Possible consequences

4. Prevention Strategies

5. Treatment Modalities

Part 2: 

Mr. X, a 42-year-old male presents to your primary care practice today complaining of low back pain.

History – Mr. X states that he has had chronic low back pain since he had a skiing accident about 10 years ago. Three days ago, he felt a pulling sensation in his lower back after moving some boxes. The pain intensity increased over the subsequent 24 hours and is now steady, aching in nature, at 3-4 out of 10. Mr. X also has Type2 diabetes, which is well controlled on metformin with a HGA1c of 5.6. He has a history of DVT 4 months ago for which he takes Coumadin, INR is WNL. He is followed by a specialist for this problem. He recently started taking two OTC products; kava kava for what he describes as “anxiety” and CoEnzyme Q10 on the advice of a friend.

Social – Mr. X is a smoker, 1 pack per week for 15 years. No alcohol or drug use. He is employed as an accountant and has medical insurance. He is divorced.

PE/ROS – Complains of low back stiffness and pain on movement with occasional spasms related to moving in certain directions. You note he has mild difficulty getting onto the exam table but gait is normal. He denies weakness/numbness/tingling of legs, no radiation, no change in bowel or bladder habits. BMI 27. All range of motion of the back is decreased by 25%. Straight leg lift is negative bilaterally, DTR intact. All other systems WNL.

Medications:
Metformin 1000mg ER one tab daily – Type II Diabetes controlled

Coumadin 5 mg. daily – Hx of DVT – Controlled

Kava Kava 50 mg. tid – Self-medication for anxiety

CoQ10 – 200 mg. daily. – Self-medication for unknown reason

Assignment Directions:

1. Provide a diagnosis for the patient and and and justify your reasons for the diagnosis based on scientific articles

2. Provide a treatment plan specifically for this patient

   (a) Pharmacologic 

   (b) Non-pharmacologic.

3. Comment on the use of OTC products in relation to Mr. X’s current chronic and acute disease diagnoses and medications. 

   (a) Include drug-drug interactions and side effect profiles.

4. Provide an education plan for Mr. X

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