CAT: For the research of relationship of smoking and lung cancer, is it an experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research? Why

Reply 1

 CAT: For the research of relationship of smoking and lung cancer, is it an experimental, quasi-experimental, and nonexperimental research? Why 

Reply 2

Experimental Group: The group in a research study that receives the experimental drug, treatment, or procedure (Helbig, 2018).

Experimental [Randomized] Research Design: A type of quantitative research design that is highly controlled to study cause and effect with independent and dependent variables (Helbig, 2018).

  • Example: Researcher manipulates one or more areas (independent) in the effects of temperature and humidity on work performance with at least two variables (high temp, low humidity and low temp, high humidity, etc.) within as many different workplace settings as available. The researcher could then measure the performance of workers in each condition (dependent) (Stone-Romero, 2011).

Quasi-Experimental Research Design: A type of quantitative research design that is partially controlled that studies cause and effect of variables (Helbig, 2018). No randomization.

  • Example: People received performance-contingent pay based on their work but their supervisors would be responsible for the planned and unplanned treatment (performance-contingent treatment) or if their supervisor did not deliver as planned could offset the design (Stone-Romero, 2011). The studies need to be fair across the board and we cannot guarantee that all supervisors will “grade” their employees on the same scale or fairly, people are picked accordingly without randomization but can be useful when experimental experiments are not possible.

Nonexperimental Research: A research study that does not involve an experimental drug, treatment, or procedure (Helbig, 2018). Quantitative or qualitative.

  • Example: Causes are assumed to be measured instead of manipulated; studying the relation between job enrichment and satisfaction. This is not a randomized study the data are collected from units that have independent variable from unknown causes. “The assumption would be erroneous if the self-reports systematically as a function of factors other than objective levels of enrichment” (Stone-Romero, 2011). Since this design deals with measured levels, it can be found to have very low levels of validity. This type of design may be more likely to be manipulated since it is measured instead of manipulated so there may be “favoritism” so this type should be avoided if possible.

The differences between each can be seen in the definitions but an experimental research design is quantitative that is highly controlled study where the dependent and independent variables matter, quasi-experimental is also quantitative but is only partially controlled with no randomization, and last, nonexperimental it is research that does not involve experimental drugs, treatments or procedures; it can be qualitative or quantitative.

Helbig, J. (2018). Applied statistics for health care.Retrieved from
Stone-Romero, E. F. (2011). Research strategies in industrial and organizational psychology: Nonexperimental, quasi-experimental, and randomized experimental research in special purpose and nonspecial purpose settings. In APA handbook of industrial and organizational psychology, Vol 1: Building and developing the organization. (pp. 37–72). American Psychological Association.

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