A minimum of 150 words each and References Response (#1 – 6) KEEP RESPONSE WITH ANSWER EACH ANSWER NEED TO HAVE A SCHOLARY SOURCE with a Hyperlink

Make sure the Responses includes the Following: (a) an understanding of the weekly content as supported by a scholarly resource, (b) the provision of a probing question. (c) stay on topic

  1. Metacognition research is centered around the ways in which people perceive their own cognitive and memory mechanisms and how they use this knowledge to control their individual data processing activities and behavior. The research strives to answer five questions: what criteria do individuals use to judge their own learning, remembering and performance, what is the validity of these judgements and what elements influence the conformity between subjective and objective thoughts, how is the veracity of metacognitive judgements determined, how do the results of metacognitive monitoring promote the critical management of learning and remembering, and how do the processes of monitoring and control alter performance (Koriat, 2007).

A theoretical structure for metacognition research was developed and adopted by clinicians that proposes that cognitive processes can be categorized into those that happen at the object level and those that happen at the meta level. The object level includes activities associated with the processing of data, such as encoding, rehearsing, retrieving, etc., while the meta level is thought to be responsible for object-level procedures (monitoring) as well as any return signals, coordinating them in a top-down manner (control). The object level does not have any control of or access to the meta level, for instance, when learning new material the brain utilizes a myriad of key, object-level functions such as the processing of text, comprehension, and rehearsal to name a few. While object-level functions are processing, metacognitive activities are outlining a plan to determine how to study, completing learning strategies, observing the path and progress of object-level activities, altering them as necessary.  For instance, when studying one may read a chapter in their textbook and then decipher for themself how much information they comprehended and retained and if not enough, they may elect to reread the chapter (Koriat, 2007).

  • To answer the question, we have to understand what metacognition is, the textbook states it is, the process in which people reflect on their cognitive and memory processes (Koriat, 2007). Not only is it about reflecting on how the process works but how performance is affected. There are two levels that the cognitive process can be broken down into. One we have talked about in this class, which is object level, it is simple and has basic steps of processing memories. The meta level is more advanced and this is where we can see how memory performance is affected. Metacognition is a deeper level of processing where it plans strategies, changing them, and adjusting based off the specific operation. An example is class versus studying at home for a test. In class you are simply taking information in and trying to remember the important facts. When you are home you involve your brain in metacognition where it will change the way your memory preforms. There is a plan of action developed to pass your test, you are recalling the information you originally learned which strengthens the memory. If something is repeated and multiple times and the focus is on one aspect than it will change the level at which it is processed. It can go from being an object level to meta level. If you do the exact opposite and loose focus on specific facts and choose to not recall on information you previously learned, then the strength of the memory will decrease.  
  • Metacognitive is a higher order of thinking that entails active control over the cognitive process that is engaged in learning (DeMarree, Briñol, & Petty, 2015). Executive functions such as planning on the approach to learning tasks, evaluate progress in completing the task, and monitoring comprehension is all involved. A view of the brain reveals that circuitry of attentional networks involved in the control processes is in the midfrontal areas (DeMarree, Briñol, & Petty, 2015).

Metacognitive has an effect on beliefs alongside the theories that come from diverse studies of the correction process of making judgments. Here individuals tend to base their judgments on their direct subjective feelings. There is an effect of an individual’s beliefs that are obtained from the relations between accuracy and confidence. The confidence of individuals is highly predicative of the accuracy of all the responses that are represented in cases of general knowledge but not on the case of eyewitnesses on the memory. Therefore, through meta-cognitive process, memory performance is highly boosted based on the cognitive process utilized in learning.

  • I think this type of thing is especially important for all of us as online students. Online schooling is a form of self-regulated learning, which concerns a student’s effort to manage learning processes in a design that helps them achieve goals (Cho & Shen, 2013). To me, that’s a complicated way of saying that online schooling requires people to figure out for themselves what works best for them in terms of maximizing learning. Metacognitive regulation in relation to self-regulated learning has been heavily studied, and in this sense refers to a student’s ability to plan, monitor, reflect, and adjust what they’re doing in order to be effective when studying (Cho & Shen, 2013). I think that is something we all already do. For example, I’ve gotten into the habit in the past couple weeks of starting the next week’s reading during the weekend looking at what the DQ’s will be asking, since I felt like I was running behind on reading and not retaining as much information as I wanted to. This is not surprising to me, but research has found that high-achieving students are likely to show more metacognitive regulation and higher satisfaction with online learning than low-achieving students (Cho & Shen, 2013).

I think learning is an ongoing process, and you can always find ways to improve the way you do things. Effective planning and monitoring how I think I’m doing when studying are strategies I already try to use. I found a study that looked at the metacognitive awareness of undergraduates on different learning studies, and it found that many students aren’t aware of different strategies that could benefit their memory towards course materials (McCabe, 2011). I think the bottom line of how students can use metacognition to improve their work is, look at what works for you individually. Monitor how you’re doing while you study, and if it doesn’t work, change it up and find a method that does. One strategy that’s mentioned in that article is the generation affect, which states that material generated by the learner will be better remembered than material generated by the instructor (McCabe, 2011). That is, take notes while you’re reading or, something I like to do is go through the study guides for exams, read about it, and then type it out on the study guide, as it helps me remember it better. I’m not sure any specific strategies I’ll use in the future, but I’m always open to changing things up if I need to. Does anyone have any specific metacognitive strategies they use that might be helpful to people?

  • I believe the value of metacognition in the learning process is an old theory that can be linked from the questioning strategies of Socrates to the twentieth-century position of Dewey that we benefit more from reflecting on our experiences than from the real experiences themselves. What is more current is the popularizing of the word “metacognition” and the creation in the last four decades of a metacognition area of research. In various subjects, metacognition is used in multiple ways, and a standard, concise concept in the research appears to be inaccessible (Tanner, 2012). A significant step on the road to learning like a scientist is to teach students to use metacognition to explain how they think about biology. This does not need to take much time in the sense of undergraduate biology teaching, and it is an initiative in the interest of learners and learning, as well as teachers (Tanner, 2012).

Learning can be defined as a dynamic discussion within the mind, but it also includes the external source of data to be learned. This dialogue becomes an intricate internal process, not just about the knowledge, but how the learner reacts to the data and adapts their cognitive management techniques accordingly. That’s metacognition (Gannaio, 2017).

  • Metacognition is to regulate individual’s cognitive and memory processes and how to use, and control based on individual’s knowledge that related to information processing and behavior (Koriat, 2007). Knowledge of contents/capacity, knowledge of tasks, and conditional knowledge are three subcomponents of the declarative component. The knowledge of task is significant to perform task successfully because it promotes to be able to understand task demands adequately. The knowledge of content can promote an individual to meet task demands (Schraw & Nietfeld, 2020). The conditional knowledge helps use a proper strategy depending on the conditions. Developmental psychologists focus on the memory functions in children and their memory capacities and limitations. Experimental cognitive psychologists focus on the monitoring and control processes in adult memory (Koriat, 2007). Metacognitive knowledge is how to control individual’s cognitive processes and maximize learning in cognitive functions. Declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge are two different categories of metacognitive. Procedural metacognitive knowledge can be defined individual’s self-regulation and self-monitoring that is subconscious memory. Whereas declarative knowledge is individual’s memory that is factual. (Metcalfe & Dunlsoky, 2008). 

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